by U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Market Quality Research Division in Washington, D.C .
Written in English
|Statement||[by W. Keith Whitney and Herbert H. Walkden]|
|Series||Marketing research report -- no. 511|
|Contributions||Walkden, H. H. (Herbert Halden), b. 1893|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||25 p. :|
|Number of Pages||25|
Methyl bromide is mixed with ethylene dichloride and car-bon tetrachloride as a fumigant for stored grains, and with hy-drocyanic acid for certain treatments applied by private commercial entomologists. Methyl bromide is also used as a soil fumigant by injection as a liquid, but it is injurious to plant life when used in this miLnner. METHYL BROMIDE ALTERNATIVES Le Goupil (71) was the ﬁrst to report that methyl bromide is toxic to insects. In the s it became widely used as the fumigant of choice for quarantine treatment for horticultural and durable commodities [fruit, vegetables, cut ﬂowers, grain. Fumigation is still one of the most effective methods for the protection of stored grain and dry food from insect infestations. Phosphine and methyl bromide are the most widely used fumigants for. Methyl Bromide is a toxic substance. Human exposure to high concentrations of Methyl Bromide can cause central nervous system and respiratory system failures and can harm the lungs, eyes, and skin.
Methyl bromide is not as toxic to most insect species as are some other commonly used fumigants, such as HCN, acrylonitrile and ethylene dibromide. The effect of methyl bromide on humans and other mammals appears to vary according to the intensity of exposure. At concentrations not immediately fatal, this chemical produces neurological symptoms. Methyl Bromide What is methyl bromide? Methyl bromide is a chemical used as a pesticide to clean up soil and buildings. At room temperature (70°F), methyl bromide is a colorless gas. It is usually shipped as a liquefied gas. At low concentrations, methyl bromide does not have an odor. At high concentrations, it has a musty or fruity smell. to control stored-product insect pests. Fumigants, such as methyl bromide, phosphine or sulfuryl fluoride, rapidly kill all life stages of stored-product insects in a commodity or in a structure (Bond, ). Contact insecticides, such as malathion, chlorpyriphos-methyl or deltamethrin, are sprayed directly on grain or structures, and. M. Aydin, Vasilii V. Petrenko, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Methyl Bromide. Methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) contributes significantly to ozone depletion in the stratosphere because it is an abundant bromine (a halogen) containing gas. It is produced naturally in oceanic and terrestrial biogeochemical systems, and during biomass burning.
To examine ways of reducing rates of methyl bromide fumigation, diet containing both life stages (extracted from pine logs) was exposed to 0, 49 or 73 g/m3 methyl bromide for 16 h in litre. Methyl Bromide Labels Table 1 summarizes the differences between existing methyl bromide (MB) labels and MB manufactured after October 1, For more detailed when concentrations in the air space around the com-modity fall to 5 ppm AND a minimum of 4 hours for active aeration (mechanical fan) OR 12 hours for passive aera-. tensively in grain facilities to control stored product insect pests. Fumigants such as methyl bromide, phos-phine, cyanogens, ethyl formate, or sulfuryl fluoride rap-idly kill all life stages of stored-product insects in the storage. Fumigation was still one of the most effective methods for . Methyl Bromide (Bromomethane) Hazard Summary Methyl bromide is used as a fumigant and pesticide. Exposure may occur during fumigation activities. Methyl bromide is highly toxic. Studies in humans indicate that the lung may be severely injured by the acute (short-term) inhalation of methyl bromide.